Solar System

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The Solar System is the gravitationally-bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. It is composed of many planets and smaller objects, orbiting at varied distances from one another.

Inner Solar System[edit | edit source]

Inner Planets[edit | edit source]

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Vulcan[edit | edit source]

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Mercury[edit | edit source]

Main Article: Mercury (Planet)

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Venus[edit | edit source]

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Earth[edit | edit source]

Main Article: Earth

Earth is the 4th planet from the sun. It is in the habitable zone; where water can stay liquid and life can survive.

Mars[edit | edit source]

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Asteroid Belt[edit | edit source]

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Ceres[edit | edit source]

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Outer Solar System[edit | edit source]

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Outer Planets[edit | edit source]

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Minerva[edit | edit source]

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Jupiter[edit | edit source]

Jupiter orbits 5.2 AU away from the Sun and is the largest planet in the solar system, with a radius of 69,911 kilometers. It is mainly composed of Hydrogen and Helium. It has 79 known moons, five of which are major moons collectively known as the Galilean Moons (Io, Europa, Alcmene, Ganymede, and Callisto). Its largest moon, Ganymede, is also the largest in the solar system, being larger than both Vulcan and Mercury. Alcmene is also unique of having a thick ammonia atmosphere, which makes it look pearly white when viewed from Earth.

Juno[edit | edit source]

Juno is the largest terrestrial planet in the Solar System with a radius of 8,215 kilometers and is a Trojan of Jupiter, orbiting at the similar distance of 5.2 AU. Its surface mainly composes of ice and rock.

Saturn[edit | edit source]

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Ouranos[edit | edit source]

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Neptune[edit | edit source]

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Trans-Neptunian Objects[edit | edit source]

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Kuiper Belt[edit | edit source]

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Pluto[edit | edit source]

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Haumea[edit | edit source]

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Orcus[edit | edit source]

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Makemake[edit | edit source]

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Scattered Disk[edit | edit source]

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Eris[edit | edit source]

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Gonggong[edit | edit source]

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Near-Interstellar Objects[edit | edit source]

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Sedna[edit | edit source]

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Erebus[edit | edit source]

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Visual Summary[edit | edit source]

Planets and Dwarf Planets of the Solar System
Planet Name Image Radius (in km) Average Orbital

Distance

(in AU)

Orbital Period Orbital Eecentricity Rotation Period Mass (in kg) Number of Moons Discovery
Vulcan
2,021 0.15 21 days 0.052 21 days (Tidally-Locked) 256.96x10^21 0 1854 (Urbain le Verrier)
Mercury
2,440 0.39 88 days 0.203 58 days & 15 hours 330.1×10^21 0 Ancient
Venus
6,052 0.72 225 days 0.007 116 days & 18 hours 486.75×10^22 2 (Cupid,Adonis) Ancient
Earth
6,371 1 365 days 0.016 23 hours & 56 minutes 597.24×10^22 1 (Luna/The Moon) Ancient
Mars
3,389 1.52 687 days 0.093 1 day & 37 minutes 641.7×10^21 2 (Phobos & Deimos) Ancient
Ceres
469 2.76 4.6 years 0.076 9 hours 938×10^18 0 1801 (Giuseppe Piazzi)
Minerva
3,176 3.94 7.17 years 0.062 20 hours & 26 minutes 556x10^21 5 (No major) 1627 (Marwan Al-Jazir)
Jupiter
Portrait of Jupiter from Cassini.jpg
69,911 5.2 11.9 years 0.049 9 hours & 54 minutes 143.13×10^26 79 (5 Major) Ancient
Saturn Saturn with auroras.jpg 58,232 9.58 29.5 years 0.056 10 hours & 33 minutes 827.13×10^25 82 (8 Major, countless moonlets) Ancient
Ouranos
Uranus thumb.jpg
25,362 19.21 84 years 0.046 17 hours & 14 minutes 868.1×10^23 27 (5 Major) 1781 (William Herschel)
Neptune
Neptune Full.jpg
24,662 30.11 165 years 0.009 16 hours & 7 minutes 102.4×10^24 14 (3 Major) 1846 (Urbain le Verrier)
Orcus
Orcus-vanth hst2.jpg
458 39.1 247 years 0.2241 9 hours & 45 minutes 634.8×10^18 1 (Vanth) 1954 (Clyde Tombaugh)
Pluto
Pluto-01 Stern 03 Pluto Color TXT.jpg
1,188 39.4 247.9 years 0.249 6 days & 9 hours

(locked with Charon)

130.3×10^20 5 (Charon, Nyx, Hydra, Styx, Kerberos) 1915 (Percival Lowell)
Haumea
Haumea Hubble.png
780 (at widest) 43.1 284.1 years 0.191 4 hours 401×10^19 2 (Hi'iaka, Namaka) 1998 (Mike Brown)
Quaoar
Quaoar-weywot hst.jpg
555 43.6 288.8 years 0.04 17 hours & 42 minutes 140×10^19 1 (Weywot) 2001 (Mike Brown)
Makemake
Makemake hubble.png
715 45.4 307.5 years 0.158 22 hours & 48 minutes 315×10^19 1 (MK1) 2000 (Mike Brown)
Gonggong
2007 OR10 and its moon.png
615 67.5 553.1 years 0.503 22 hours & 24 minutes 174×10^19 1 (Xiangliu) 1992 (Mike Brown)
Eris
Eris and dysnomia.jpg
1,163 67.8 558 years 0.441 25 hours & 54 minutes 166×10^20 1 (Dysnomia) 1976 (Clyde Tombaugh)
Juno 8,215 166.2 0.089 21 hours & 13 minutes 859.68x10^22 6 (1 Major) 1987
Sedna
Sedna PRC2004-14d.jpg
497 484 11,424 years 0.855 12 hours & 18 minutes 133×10^19 0 2005 (Mike Brown)
Erebus
17,078 683.83 15,420 years 0.467 19 hours & 12 minutes 544.75x10^23 2 Major (possibly more) 1988 (Clyde Tombaugh)

Major moons of the Solar System[edit | edit source]

Moons, or natural satellites, are classified as an object of any size that have naturally made their way into orbit around a planet. Almost all planets in the solar system possess moons, which could be small (as in the case for Venus) or massive (such as the Jovian moons). Here are the moons that are larger than 200 km in radius.

Moons of the inner solar system (ordered by planetary distance from sun, than distance from planet)
Name Mother planet Radius (km) Mass Distance from planet Orbital period and Rotation Discoverer
Cupid Venus
Adonis Venus
Luna Earth
Phobos Mars
Demios Mars
Io Jupiter
Europa Jupiter
Alcmene Jupiter
Ganymede Jupiter
Callisto Jupiter
Bellona Juno
Mimas Saturn
Enceladus Saturn
Prometheus Saturn
Ephemituiys Saturn
Rhea Saturn
Titan Saturn
Iapetus Saturn
Miranda Uranus
Ariel Uranus
Umbriel Uranus
Titania Uranus
Oberon Uranus
Triton Neptune
Salacia Neptune
Proteus Neptune
Charon Pluto (possible binary)
Dysnomia Eris
E1 (as of yet unnamed) Erebus
E2 (as of yet unnamed) Erebus