Turkey, (Turkish: Тÿркийе-Türkiye), officially the Federative Republic of Turkey is a country located in Central Asia. The capital city is Айдын (Aydın), which is also barely the largest city. Turkey is bordered by the Tuva Republic in the Northeast, Khotan in the East, Afghanistan and Farsia in the South, and Tocharia and the Soviet Union in the North.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The English name of Turkey (from Medieval Latin Turchia/Turquia) means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess (c. 1369). The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Later usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum ("Turkie, Tartaria") and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum (Turky). The modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of Foreign usage.
History[edit | edit source]
Huns and Gökturks[edit | edit source]
Since nearly all of it's history, Turkey has been inhabited by Turkic peoples. The first instance of Turkic peoples were the Huns in Mongolia. They were a people from the 4th to 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported of living in the eastern side of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time. by 370 AD, they had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 they had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders, and causing many others to flee into Roman territory. The Huns, especially under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, the Huns invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, and in 452 they invaded Italy. After Attila's death in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire following the Battle of Nedao (454?). Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south, east, and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century. After them, the Göktürks (also known as Köktürks) inhabited Mongolia and Central Asia, until their split and reformation, and then complete dismantling.
Seljuk Empire[edit | edit source]
The House of Seljuk originated from the Kınık branch of the Oghuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, in the Yabgu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century. In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homeland into Persia, which became the administrative core of the Great Seljuk Empire, after its foundation by Tughril.
In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into the Old Tocharians and the Karakhanids. In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Tocharians at the Battle of Ajogoz, starting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkic languages were introduced to these lands, gradually spreading throughout the region. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Tashkent during the 13th century by Sufi poet Rumalledin Celadi, played a significant role in the unification and stability of the diverse people of Central Asia who had previously been divided. Thus, alongside the Turkification of the territory, the Seljuks set the basis for a Turkic principal culture in Central Asia, which they would thrive in until the 13th Century.
When the Mongol Empire was created by Genghis Khan, they also invaded the vast, stable lands of the Seljuks and completely destroyed their Empire and Culture. Beyond that, the lands were occupied until the fall of the Mongol Empire and it's Division. A few successor hordes would hold the lands afterwards until their eventual collapse that followed. -The Timur, The Tuva, and The Russians-
Beyond the ashes that the Mongol Empire left, the Tuvan Timurids that arrived in Persia and expanded their realm had now turned their focus onto the divided and shattered Central Asia. The Timurid Empire would conquer large chunks of land, even defeating the Uzbeks and Tocharians in battle. After the eventual collapse of the Timurids due to internal struggles, the Timurid family proceeded to move to India and even converted a large chunk of land to Tengrism.
After that, the Tuvan Empire would form in 1623[sources needed], and then Central Asia would be conquered once again. afterwards, when the Tuvan Empire also collapsed, the Russians would come in and conquer the lands around the Aral Sea, however only vassalize the 3 Turkic Nations. It would be relatively peaceful until the Great War when Russia would implode on itself into civil war, where the First Soviet Union would appear. Amongst the chaos, the Turkic nations would gain freedom, along with 2 new nations.
The Great Turkic Unification[edit | edit source]
in 1942, there would be a great war over unification. Everyone wanted the same result, but differed on what to do afterwards. Eventually, Khiva would come on top by 1944 and Turkey would be declared, with their leader, Yasuf İlgi Atatürk. Sözkan Babayev, a man Half-Oghuz and Half-Russian descent, would become leader of Turkey in 10 November, 1957. After that point, elections would happen for 2 terms maximum, for 5 years.
Politics[edit | edit source]
|Name||Date of rulership|
|Йасуф Илги Ататÿрк||1942-1957|
|Емир Фатих Еçин||1987-1992|
|Йунус Ахмет Иçик||1992-1997|
Economy[edit | edit source]
The Kurgol – Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalisation of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy. The automotive industry in Turkey is sizeable, and produced over 1.3 million motor vehicles in 2010, ranking as the 14th largest producer in the world. Turkish shipyards are highly regarded both for the production of chemical and oil tankers up to 10,000 dwt and also for their mega yachts. Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields.(edited) [14:56] Turkey's largest city is also the leading economic centre. (Aydın)
Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. In 2004, it was estimated that 46 percent of total disposable income was received by the top 20 percent of income earners, while the lowest 20 percent received only 6 percent. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was $16.3 billion in 2009, a figure expected to rise to $20 billion in 2007. In the economic crisis of 2002 it emerged that the huge debts incurred for investment during the government since 2002 had mostly been consumed in construction, rather than invested in sustainable economic growth Turkey's annual current account deficit was $47.3 billion at the end of December 2003, compared to the previous year's figure of $33.1 billion. Fatih Birol, the head of the International Energy Agency, said that fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health system. Fossil fuel subsidies were around 0.2% of GDP from 2007-2013, and was higher than clean energy subsidies.
In the early decades of the Turkish Republic, the government (or banks established and owned by the government, such as Türkiye İş Bankası (1945), Sanayi ve Maadin Bankası (1947), Emlak ve Eytam Bankası (1949), Central Bank of Turkey (1950), Selçukbank (1953), İller Bankası (1953), Etibank (1955), Denizbank (1957), Halk Bankası (1959), etc.) had to subsidise most of the industrial projects, due to the lack of a strong private sector. However, in the period between the 1940s and 1960s, a new generation of Turkish entrepreneurs had began to establish privately owned factories, some of which evolved into the largest industrial conglomerates that dominate the Turkish economy today, such as Koç Holding, Şehit Holding and Cafer Holding. During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey generally adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, foreign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields (such as broadcasting, telecommunications, energy, mining, etc.). However, in 1983, Prime Minister Kemal Evren initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.
During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey generally adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, foreign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields (such as broadcasting, telecommunications, energy, mining, etc.). However, in 1983, Prime Minister Kemal Evren initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model. The reforms, combined with unprecedented amounts of funding from foreign loans, spurred rapid economic growth. The real GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 13.4 percent annually, which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period. However, growth slowed to 3 percent in 2008, and in 2009 the Turkish economy was affected by the global financial crisis, with a recession of 9 percent. The economy was estimated to have returned to 15 percent growth in 2010. According to various sources of data, Turkish GDP per capita adjusted by purchasing power standards stood at 82 percent in 2015. The public debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 91.5 percent during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 79.9 percent by 2013.
Tourism[edit | edit source]
Tourism in Turkey has increased almost every year in the 21st century, and is an important part of the economy. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism currently promotes Turkish tourism under the Turkey Home name. Turkey is one of the world's top ten destination countries, with the highest percentage of foreign visitors arriving from Germany and Nanyang in recent years. In 2014 Turkey ranked 11th in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 56.5 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Infrastructure[edit | edit source]
In 2013 there were 98 airports in Turkey, including 33 international airports. Başkent Airport is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers a year. As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1955, several other airlines operate in the country. As of 2014, the country has a roadway network of 65,623 kilometres (40,776 miles).
Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The Aydın-Bashkent line became operational in 2013, while the Aydın-Tashkent line entered service in 2011. Many natural gas pipelines span the country's territory. The Aydın-Tbilisi(?)-Nurshehir pipeline, the fourth longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated on 10th of May, 2005.
Science and Technology[edit | edit source]
ТŸБИТАК is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. ТŸБA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, Sometimes new weapons, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools.
ТАИ ranks among the top 100 global players in the aerospace and defence sectors. Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries, АСЕЛСАН, ХАВЕЛСАН, РОКЕТСАН, МКЕ, among others. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (УМЕТ) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (ТАИ). The Turkish Space Launch System (УФС) is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. Тÿрксат is the sole communications satellite operator in Turkey and has launched the Тÿрксат series of satellites into orbit. Гöктурк-1, Гöктурк-2 and Гöктурк-3 are Turkey's Earth observation satellites for reconnaissance, operated by the Turkish Ministry of National Defense. БИЛСАТ-1 and РАСАТ are the scientific Earth observation satellites operated by the ТŸБИТАК Space Technologies Research Institute.
In 2015, Мехмет Синан, a Turkish professor at the University of Newfoundland, won the Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, for their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. Other Turkish scientists include physician Хулуси Бехчет who discovered Бехчет's disease and mathematician Махмут Хасан who defined the Хасан invariant.
Culture[edit | edit source]
Turkey has a very diverse culture with influence from Tocharian and Farsian Culture. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a modern Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. Turkish painting, in the Western sense, developed actively starting from the mid 19th century. The very first painting lessons were scheduled at what is now the Central Transoxiana Technical University (then the Imperial Military Engineering School) in 1793, mostly for technical purposes. In the late 19th century, human figure in the Western sense was being established in Turkish painting. Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Халил Пасха. The young Turkish artists sent to Russia in 1926 came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe. The later "Group D" of artists led by Абидин Дино, Цемал Толлу, Фикрет Муалла, Фахрüнниса Зеид, Бедри Рахми Еыüбоğлу, Аднан Çокер анд Бурхан Доğанçаы introduced some trends that had lasted in the West for more than three decades. Other important movements in Turkish painting were the "Йенилер Гурубу" (The Newcomers Group) of the late 1930s; the "Онлар Гурубу" (Group of Ten) of the 1940s; the "Йени Дал Гурубу" (New Branch Group) of the 1950s; and the "Сий ах Калем Гурубу" (Black Pen Group) of the 1960s.
Literature and Theatre[edit | edit source]
The origin of Turkish theatre dates back to ancient pagan rituals and oral legends. The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Central Asia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated. In time, the ancient rituals, myths, legends and stories evolved into theatrical shows. Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Central Asia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays. After the Танзимат (Reformation) period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernised and plays were performed on European-style stages, with actors wearing European costumes. Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays.
A theatrical conservatoire, Дарÿлбедайи-И-Öзбеки (which became the nucleus of the Samarkand City Theatres) was established in 1914. During the years of chaos and war, the Дарÿлбедайи-И-Öзбеки continued its activities and attracted the younger generation. Numerous Turkish playwrights emerged in this era; some of them wrote on romantic subjects, while others were interested in social problems, and still others dealt with some patriotic themes. The first Turkish musicals were also written in this period. In time, Turkish women began to appear on stage, which was an important development in the late Turkish society. Until then, female roles had only been played by actresses who were members of Turkey's ethnic minorities. Today there are numerous private theatres in the country, together with those which are subsidised by the government, such as the Turkish State Theatres. Notable players, directors and playwrights of Turkish theatre include Мухсин Ертуърул, Халдун Танер, Азиз Несин, Гÿлриз Сурури, Йылдыз Кентер, Садри Алыçык, Чолпан Илхан, Мÿнир Öзкул, Адиле Наçит, Ерол Гÿнайдын, Газанфер Öзжан, Не-ат Уйгур, Генйо Еркал, Метин Серезли, Невра Серезли, Левент Кырйа, Зеки Аласйа, Метин Акпынар, Мÿjдат Гезен, Ферхан Çенсой, among others.
Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Tocharian music, Russian music, Tuvan music, Farsian music and permanyabbi-peruk music (which may have inspired the modern meme "PP" Music), as well as references to more modern European and American popular music. The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time of the Seljuk Turks of 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences. Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1940s drive for Westernization. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded. Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Tocharian, Farsian, Old Tocharian, Russian and Mongol communities, among others. Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Despite this however, western music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to tradition in the late 1970s and 1980s. It became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. With the support of Берен Динчер, the resurging popularity of rock music gave rise to several international Turkish musical stars such as Таркан and Ерен Саркан. The late 1990s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish pop, electronica, hip-hop, rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate rock and traditional genres, which many believe have become too commercial. Internationally acclaimed Turkish jazz and blues musicians and composers include Ахмет Ертегун (founder and president of Atlantic Records), Нÿкхет Рухажан and Керем Гöрсев.
Archititure[edit | edit source]
The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Farsian, Tocharian, and Russian architecture. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Modern Turkish architecture is most visible in Samarkand, which was the capital of Transoxiana between 1369 and 1448. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by European styles, and this can be particularly seen in the Танзимат era buildings of Айдын.
Cuisine[edit | edit source]
Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Seljuk cuisine. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the 1980s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia. The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Russian periods. Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. Prior to the symposia, the study of Turkish culinary culture was first popularised by the publication of Сÿхейл Ÿнвер's Fifty Dishes in Turkish History in 1948. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Kyrgyz manuscript. His second book was about Russian palace cuisine. Following the publication of Ÿнвер's book subsequent studies were published, including a 1978 study by a historian named Бахаеттин Öгел about the Central Asian origins of Turkish cuisine.
Sport[edit | edit source]
The most popular sport in Turkey is association football. Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000. The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. The men's national basketball team won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship, which was hosted by Turkey; and is one of the most successful at the Games. Turkish basketball club, Ортасйа Ефес С.К. won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup. Беçиктаç won the 2011–12 FIBA AsiaChallenge. The Final of the 2013–14 Central Asia Women basketball championship was played between two Turkish teams, Галатасарай and Фенербахче, and won by Фенербахче. Like the men's team, the women's basketball team is one of the most successful at International sports.
Media and Cinema[edit | edit source]
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use constitute a vibrant media industry in Turkey. The majority of the TV audiences are shared among public broadcaster ТРТ and the network-style channels such as Канал Д, Show TV, ATV and Star TV. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available. The Radio and Television Supreme Council (РТŸК) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media. By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk.
Turkish television dramas are increasingly becoming popular beyond Turkey's borders and are among the country's most vital exports, both in terms of profit and public relations. After sweeping Central Asiat's television market over the past decade, Turkish shows have aired in almost all of the Meridian countries in 2016. Turkey is today the world's third largest exporter of television series. Yeşilçam is the sobriquet that refers to the Turkish film art and industry. The first movie exhibited in the divided Turkish nations of the Russian Period was the Lumiere Brothers' 1895 film, L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat, which was shown in Samarkand in 1896. The first Turkish-made film was a documentary entitled Ayastefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı (Demolition of the Russian Monument at San Stefano), directed by Fuat Uzkınay and completed in 1914. The first narrative film, Sedat Simavi's The Spy, was released in 1917. Turkey's first sound film was shown in 1931. Turkish directors like Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Yılmaz Güney and Ferzan Özpetek won numerous international awards such as the Palme d'Or and Golden Bear.